Infrastructure Canada is a complex of interconnected objects and structures that ensure the functioning of the country. The development of the infrastructure of Canada can be judged by the branches of the economy and finance, the social sphere, transport, as well as technology and science.
Canada is the eleventh largest economy in the world. Its nominal GDP is nearly $1.8 billion. The country is a member of the Economic Cooperation Organization, as well as a permanent member of the G8 society.
Canada is a country with a mixed economy. Its key industries are:
The service sector, which employs approximately three-quarters of the total population. The largest employer is the retail sector, represented by chains of stores, hypermarkets, shopping centers. Business services, including communications, financial services, and real estate, are considered the other most important sectors of the sector. It is also worth highlight-ing education and healthcare, as well as the rapidly developing industries of the film and television industry. Tourism is also gaining in importance;
Manufacturing. Promising directions are the production of space aircraft, woodworking, mechanical engineering, production of medicines;
Energy. Canada is a global exporter of energy. Large oil and gas resources are concentrated on the territory of the country, as well as hydroelectric power plants – an inexpensive and environmentally friendly energy source;
Agriculture. The state, like many years ago, is considered one of the world’s largest suppliers of agricultural products. Cereals, vegetables and fruits from Canada are supplied to the USA, Asia, and Europe.
A developed market economy makes Canada one of the leaders in this area, as evidenced by the highest standard of living of the country’s population. The market infrastructure in Canada is considered one of the most sustainable.
The market infrastructure includes all kinds of financial institutions such as banks and credit unions, financial markets, clearing and settlement systems. The main commercial activity is the storage, borrowing and investment of funds, the purchase and sale of goods and services using debit and credit cards, checks or electronic money.
Banks of Canada are represented by 8,000 branches and over 18,000 automated machines in the country. The most popular and affordable services in Canada are the use of electronic payment systems, debit cards, internet banking, and telephone banking.
Social services in Canada
Social programs in Canada include all government programs aimed at helping citizens.
Healthcare. All Canadian territories and provinces provide the population with universal health services funded by the government. Services that are not subsidized or excluded from the universal list are purchased privately. In Canada, there is a ban on private treatment, which allows, according to the administration, to exclude “two health care” – for the poor and the rich;
Education. Primary and secondary school education is compulsory and at par. Private education is available, but its relatively high cost and not always high-quality teaching make it less popular than in the UK or USA. Higher education is not free but subsidized by the federal and provincial governments. Financial assistance is provided through student loans and honors students;
Public housing in Canada. Canadian mortgages are insured by the Canadian Federal Mortgage and Housing Corporation and other ministries responsible for regulating the housing market;
Unemployment benefits. Unemployment benefits and other similar payments are made within the framework of several programs – “Social assistance”, “Income support”, “Material assistance” and “Social support”. The purpose of these programs is to alleviate extreme poverty and provide monthly payments for people with little or no income;
Pension system. Most Canadian retirees are eligible for an old-age pension tax-deductible monthly social security contribution. Also, many people receive private pensions through their employers.
Long distances between farms, mines, forests and urban centers make Canada’s transportation system mature and efficient, allowing natural and manufactured goods to move freely through domestic and international markets. Transport continues and will continue to play an important role in the socio-economic system of Canada.
The transport infrastructure of the country is represented by:
- water transport;
- the sphere of organization of freight traffic;
- passenger transportation;
- pipeline transport;
- tourist excursion transport.
New inventions, technological change, and human ingenuity have led to numerous changes in Canada’s transportation infrastructure. Most of the changes are related to faster transport speeds, lower costs and higher productivity.
The country’s government spends billions of dollars on internal research and development. Currently, the country is home to 13 No-Belev Prize winners in the field of chemistry, medicine, physics. In 2012, the state was ranked fourth in the world for scientific research.
The country has one of the highest levels of Internet access: over 33 million active Internet users are registered in Canada. The aerospace industry is actively developing, they carry out scientific research in the field of aviation and robotics.